The Cosmological Principle was put forth in the early twentieth century. It states two physical qualities of our universe. First, that our universe is Homogeneous; i.e., that it has the same density and structure in all locations. Even where galaxies are clumped into large clusters, these clusters are surrounded by significant voids that even out the density of matter throughout the universe. The second quality of the Cosmological Principle is that our universe is Isotropic, meaning that it looks the same in all directions, i.e., there is no preferred direction when viewing the universe. Recent analysis of radio and photographic data by various telescopes and instruments has confirmed the validity of the Cosmological Principle.
The universe is postulated to be expanding at about 71 kilometers per second, per megaparsec (each 3.2616 million light years distance). However, a universe expanding at this velocity cannot be Homogeneous. The error between mass density as measured and the difference in density required by spatial expansion renders the theory of a Big Bang beginning and continuous expansion impossible.
To explore this density problem let’s look at the geometry of concentric spheres. It is taught in geometry classes that a sphere of radius R has a volume of (4/3 Pi R-cubed); While a second sphere where the radius is one/half of R has a volume that is 1/8 the volume of the sphere of radius R; ( R/2-cubed equals R-cubed / 2-cubed, which equals R-cubed / 8 ). So for example, an expanding universe at 13.78 billion light years distance would need to have far more mass density than the universe would have at 6.89 billion light years distance from us; and the universe at 6.89 billion light years distance would have eight times the density than occurs near our galaxy today, because the universe of today is eight times the volume of the universe at 6.89 billion years of age. Since the density of mass throughout the universe is measured to be the same, this alone is sufficient to prove that the universe is not expanding.
There are two time dilation problems as well, for the theory of expanding space. When something is receding from us, say at 10% of the velocity of light it requires 11 seconds to receive a record of 10 seconds of activity occurring at that location, because in the 10 seconds in which an activity occurred, that location has receded 10sec x 30,000km/sec or 300,000 km further away, which equals one second of light travel time. For a recession velocity of 50% of the velocity of light, 10 seconds of activity require 15 seconds to be recorded by us. This is the time dilation we should measure at 6.89 billion light years distance (50%). Since the rotation of galaxies like out Milky Way rotate in time frames of 200 to 250 million years nearby, they should be measured as rotating in time frames of 300 to 375 million years at 6.89 billion light years distance. No such time dilation is reported. The lack of time dilation proves that the universe is not expanding. Similarly for Type 1a Supernovas, their light curves of building and waning light should be dilated by 50% at a distance of 6.89 billion light years. With the exception of one Type 1a Supernova no time dilation has been recorded; and the one exception could be explained by unseen mass ( large planets or dark stars) being absorbed by the Supernova during its explosive phase, which could supply the extended light energy that was recorded in that one event. Again, the lack of time dilation for Type 1a Supernovas is problematic for the theory of spatial expansion.
One final problem for the theory of spatial expansion is a coincidence that should bother Astronomers and Cosmologists. This is the coincidence that the estimated age of the universe is 13.78 billion years, requiring 13.78 billion years for light to travel to our location from the Big Bang; while the calculated distance for the universe to reach the expansion velocity of 300,000 km/sec at our location, which is the velocity of light, is 13.78 billion light years for an expansion velocity of 71km/sec/mps. This follows from dividing 300,000 km/sec by 71km/sec/mps and arriving at a distance of 4225.35 megaparsec; which multiplied by 3.2616 million light years per megaparsec gives 13.78 billion light years. So we are coincidentally, just now receding at the velocity of light from the origin of the Big Bang, if such an event occurred. For our location to be expanding at the velocity of light from a point that by both distance and time of light travel is 13.78 billion light years and 13.78 billion years respectively, begs credulity.